Rapeseed/ mustard are crops of tropical as well as temperate zones and require somewhat cool and dry weather for satisfactory growth. They require a fair supply of soil moisture during the growing period and a dry clear weather at the time of maturity. Cool temperature, clear dry weather with plentiful of bright sun shine accompanied with adequate soil moisture increases the oil yield. In India they are grown in Rabi season from September-October to February-March. Rape seed and mustard are long day in periodic response. These crops are not drought tolerant. They require an annual precipitation of 35-45 centimeters. The crop also does not tolerate water logging.
Mustard is capable of growing under a wide range of soil conditions varying from sandy loam to clay loam soils but they thrive best on light loam soils. They neither tolerate water logging conditions nor do well on heavy soils. Plants can tolerate moderate salinity reasonably well but a soil having neutral pH is ideal for their proper growth and development.